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The Effect of Rutin on Antioxidant and Anti-inflammation in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats
Applied Microscopy 2013;43:54-64
Published online June 30, 2013
© 2013 Korean Society of Microscopy.

Yoon Jeong Lee1,2, Kyung Hee Jeune1,*

1Department of Life Sciences, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749, Korea,2Department of Optometry & Vision Science, Kyungwoon University, Gumi 730-739, Korea
Correspondence to: Jeune KH,
Tel: +82-53-810-3571
Fax: +82-53-810-4681
E-mail: khjeune@yu.ac.kr
Received April 14, 2013; Revised June 10, 2013; Accepted June 12, 2013.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
The study examined the antioxidant activities and anti-inflammatory effects of rutin from the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Results revealed that the levels of plasma glucose and serum glucose were remarkably higher in the STZ-treated group compared to other groups and were significantly reduced in the STZ+rutin treated group compared to the STZ-treated group. In terms of weight, it significantly increased in all experimental groups during the experiment period except for STZ-induced diabetic group. The weight of the STZ-treated group was remarkably reduced compared to other groups. Regarding the weight of each body organ, the STZ-treated group showed higher organ weight compared to the other groups while STZ+rutin-treated group showed significantly reduced kidney and liver weights compared to those of STZ-treated group. In the pancreas tissue of the STZ-treated group, β-cell destruction and vacuolization were observed. Inflammation in the heart, liver, kidney, and retina tissues were also vividly recorded. In the STZ+rutin administered group, the heart and retina tissues were shown to be preserved normally while the liver and kidney tissues showed reduced histopathology in general compared to the STZ-treated group. Conclusionally, the rutin has the effect on the antioxidant activities and anti-inflammation in the STZ-induced diabetic rats.
Keywords : Rutin, Diabetic rats, Streptozocin, Antioxidant, Anti-inflammation
Figures
Fig. 1. Histopathologic changes of the pancreas (H&E stain, scale bar=25 μm). (A) In normal rat, the pancreas architectures were well preserved. Islet of Langerhans (circle). AC, acinar cells; BV, blood vessels. (B) In streptozotocin (STZ) treated rat, the destruction of insulin-producing β-cells and vacuoles were observed (arrowheads). (C) In STZ+rutin treated rat, the pancreas architectures were relatively well preserved. (D) In rutin treated rat, the pancreas architectures were well preserved.
Fig. 2. Histopathologic changes of the heart (H&E stain, scale bar=100 μm). (A) In normal rat, the heart architectures were well preserved. (B) In streptozotocin (STZ) treated rat, the infiltration of inflammatory cells were observed (circle). (C) In STZ+rutin treated rat, the heart architectures were relatively well preserved. (D) In STZ+treated rat, the heart architectures were well preserved.
Fig. 3. Histopathologic changes of the liver (H&E stain, scale bar=50 μm). (A) In normal rat, the liver architectures were well preserved. The central vein (arrow) and normal hepatocytes were observed. (B) In streptozotocin (STZ) treated rat, hydropic degeneration and necrosis were observed overall. (C) In STZ+rutin treated rat, hydropic degeneration and necrosis were observed in the central vein (CV) around (circle). (D) In rutin treated rat, the liver architectures were well preserved. The central vein (arrow) and normal hepatocytes were observed.
Fig. 4. Histopathologic changes of the kidney (H&E stain, scale bar=50 μm). (A) In normal rat, the kidney architectures were well preserved. The normal renal corpuscle (RC)s were observed. (B) In streptozotocin (STZ) treated rat, adhesion of glomerulus and Bowman’s capsules and closing of uriniferous tubules’ lumens were noted generally (arrows). The infiltration of inflammatory cells were observed (circle). (C) In STZ+rutin treated rat, the kidney architectures were relatively well preserved. Adhesion of glomerulus and Bowman’s capsules and infiltration of inflammatory cells were observed partially. (D) In STZ+treated rat, the kidney architectures were well preserved.
Fig. 5. Histopathologic changes of the spleen (H&E stain, scale bar=100 μm). (A) In normal rat, the spleen architectures were well preserved. CA, central artery; WP, white pulp; RP, red pulp. (B) In streptozotocin (STZ)-treated rat, the spleen architectures were well preserved. (C) In STZ+rutin treated rat, the spleen architectures were well preserved. (D) In rutin treated rat, the spleen architectures were well preserved.
Fig. 6. Histopathologic changes of the retina (H&E stain, scale bar=50 μm). (A) In normal rat, the retina architectures were well preserved. ILM, internal limiting membrane; NFL, nerve fiber layer; GC, layer of ganglion cells; OPL, outer plexiform layer; IPL, inner plexiform layer; INL, inner nuclear layer; ONL, outer nuclear layer; R&C, layer of rod and cones; PEp, pigment epithelium; CH, choroid. (B) In streptozotocin (STZ)-treated rat, the retinal detachment (arrows) and separation of pigment epithelium and layer of optic cells were observed. (C) In STZ+rutin treated rat, the retina architectures were relatively well preserved. (D) In rutin treated rat, the retina architectures were well preserved.
Tables
Table. 1. Classification of experimental groups

STZ, streptozotocin.
Table. 2. Change of plasma glucose and serum glucose levels
Statistical analysis was by a one-way ANOVA with Tukey's test. All values are mean±standard error for rats in each group. Values with different superscripts are significantly different (p<0.05). STZ, streptozotocin.
Table. 3. Change of body weight and each organ weight levels
Statistical analysis was by a one-way ANOVA with Tukey's test. All values are mean±standard error for rats in each group. Values with different superscripts are significantly different (p<0.05). STZ, streptozotocin.
Table. 4. Change of Serum glucose, GOT, GPT, ALP, BUN, and creatinine levels
Statistical analysis was by a one-way ANOVA with Tukey's test. All values are mean±standard error for rats in each group. Values with different superscripts are significantly different (p<0.05). GOT, glutamic oxalaceic transaminase; GPT, glutamic pyruvic transaminase; ALP, alkaline phosphatase; BUN, blood urea nitrogen; STZ, streptozotocin.
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